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超级马拉松中,身体会出现什么问题?

超级马拉松中,身体会出现什么问题?
What Happens To Your Body During An Ultramarathon?
 
Ultramarathons are races ranging from 50 to 4,345 km. During races, the most common problems for runners are nausea and vomiting. Some runners may get blurry vision. Sleepiness and hallucinations are problems in longer races lasting more than 24 hours.
超级马拉松的比赛长度从50公里到4345公里不等。在比赛中,最常见的问题是恶心和呕吐。一些跑步者可能出现视力模糊。在持续超过24小时的比赛中,会发生嗜睡和幻觉。
 
Ultramarathons are a growing sport in the US and globally. In these grueling tests of human endurance, your body can go through a lot of stress. Following is a transcript of the video. In 2018, more than 108-thousand people finished ultramarathons in the US alone. An ultramarathon is any race longer than 42 kilometers. Races can range anywhere from 50 to over 4,000 kilometers. But one of the more common lengths covers about 100 kilometers and takes, on average, 17 hours to finish.
在美国和全球,超级马拉松是一项不断发展的运动。在这些对人类耐力的严酷考验中,人体会经受很多压力。2018年,仅在美国就有超过10.8万人完成了超级马拉松。超级马拉松是指长度超过42公里的比赛。比赛范围从50公里到4000公里。但其中较常见的路程约为100公里,平均需要17个小时才能完成。
 
In some of the longer races, half of the runners never see the finish line. Because these races not only push you to your mental limit they take a toll on your body both inside and out. Ultra runners endure pretty extreme conditions. The Badwater Ultramarathon, for example, covers over 4,000 meters of elevation through Death Valley, in July, one of the hottest months of the year. Temperatures reach up to 47 degrees Celsius, causing headaches and dizziness in many runners. But even if you’re running in more comfortable weather, you could be feeling sick to your stomach. One of the most common issues in any ultramarathon is nausea and/or vomiting. It affects about 37% of people who complete a race, but it’s also the number one reason runners won’t finish in the first place.
在较长距离的比赛中,有一半的运动员从未到达终点线。因为这些比赛不仅把人体推向精神极限,也会对身体造成伤害。参赛者忍受极端条件。例如,在一年中最热的月份之一的七月,Badwater超级马拉松参赛者要跨越海拔4000多米的死亡谷。温度高达47摄氏度,导致许多参赛者出现头痛和头晕。但即使在更舒适的天气里跑步,人体也可能会感到胃部不适。在任何超级马拉松比赛中,最常见的问题之一就是恶心和/或呕吐。37%完成比赛的人会出现恶心或者呕吐,这也是参赛者无法完成比赛的首要原因。
 
That’s because running disrupts your digestion.  It diverts blood away from your stomach to your muscles. And since ultramarathons last so long, many races provide sandwiches, pasta, and other carb-loaded meals. As a result, that food will sit around undigested, causing problems. But if your stomach isn’t slowing you down, your eyes could be causing you grief.
跑步会将血液从胃部转移到肌肉,扰乱人体的消化系统。由于超级马拉松持续时间很长,许多比赛会提供三明治、意大利面和其他富含碳水化合物的食物。结果,食物滞留在胃部无法消化,从而导致恶心呕吐。但是即便胃部没有让你慢下来,你的眼睛可能感到不适。
 
Windy conditions can dry out or damage the cells that pump a protective liquid layer over your cornea, which can cause your cornea to swell up and blur your vision. During the Hellgate 100K for example, runners report losing most of their vision by the end. They call it “Hellgate Eyes.”
风会泵出角膜上保护性液体层使得细胞变干或受损,从而导致角膜肿胀和视力模糊。例如,在地狱门100K中,跑步者说比赛最后他们丧失大部分视力。他们称它为"地狱门之眼"
 
But no amount of protection or preparation can prevent one symptom: Sleepiness. For a 17-hour race, it might not be so bad. But longer races can stretch to more than 24 hours, which can make sleepy runners more prone to trips and falls or worse, hallucinations. The Barkley Marathons, for example, is a race where runners are given 60 hours to finish 161 km. In 2005, one runner reported that he thought he saw houses at the top of the mountain and believed he was their garbageman sent to pick up the trash.
但是,再多的保护或准备也无法预防一种症状:困倦。对于一场17个小时的比赛来说,情况可能没那么糟糕。但更长时间的比赛会持续24小时以上,这可能使昏昏欲睡的跑步者更容易摔倒或出现更严重的幻觉。例如,Barkley马拉松比赛中,选手要在60小时内跑完161公里。2005年,一名跑步者说,他以为自己看到了山顶上的房子,认为自己是派来收垃圾的清洁工。
 
Despite all these health hazards, ultrarunning is a growing sport. One study found that compared to marathoners, ultrarunners are more likely to do it for nature and a sense of purpose than for the competitive aspect. So if you’re up for the challenge, plenty of races are on trails through natural areas, so at least you’ll get a great view!
尽管存在这些健康危害,超跑仍是一项日益发展的运动。一项研究发现,与马拉松运动员相比,超级跑者更有可能是为了大自然和目标感,而非竞争。如果你准备迎接挑战,很多比赛都是在穿越自然区域的小路上进行,所以至少你会看到很棒的风景!
 
资料:Science Insider;更新:Mar 20, 2019;



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